An Automated Market Maker is a decentralized system for exchanging assets using a pricing algorithm.
A Constant Function Market Maker is a class of AMM that uses a static mathematical function for its pricing algorithm.
A type of smart contract that provides offchain data via an onchain interface.
A pool is a common name for something that holds assets and provides liquidity to a market by having a price for the assets at all times.
In the context of crypto, LPs are an acronym for Liquidity Providers, which are the users who provide assets to a market, like an AMM.